College of William & Mary


What are Activity Types? (.pdf)

Planning with Activity Types (.pdf)
Learning Activity Types Short Courses

K-6 Literacy
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Social Studies
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English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)

Assessment Tools
LATs Short Courses
Selected Activity Types Citations
TPACK Newsletters

Selected Publications Citing Harris & Hofer's TPACK/Learning Activity Types Work

Johnson, L. (2014).  Impact of design team on preservice teachers’ TPACK, attitudes, & skills.  In Liu, L. & Gibson, D. (Eds.), Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education (43-50).  Waynesville, NC:  AACE.

“This study examined the effect of a specific instructional approach called design teams on preservice teachers' attitudes toward technology, their technology skills, and their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). In a design teams approach, participants work in collaborative teams to design solutions to solve real-world problems. This quasi-experimental study explored the efficacy of an educational technology course implemented with a design teams approach compared to the same course that utilized a standard instructional approach. The sample included 53 preservice teachers from one university majoring in either Early Childhood Inclusive or Elementary Inclusive Education. Preservice teachers in the treatment condition worked in design teams to plan technology integrated lessons to solve authentic instructional problems. In the comparison condition, preservice teachers completed instructor-designed assignments in class and planned a technology integrated lesson independently. In comparing the participating preservice teachers' attitudes toward technology, skills, and TPACK, it was found that there were significant differences between the two groups on TPACK when measured with evidence from lesson plans. There were no significant differences when survey data on attitudes toward technology, technology skills, and TPACK were compared; further exploration indicated that both groups significantly improved on these measures over the course of the semester. These results suggested that the design teams approach was appropriate for use in preservice teacher technology education, but additional research is necessary to determine in which contexts and with what specific learning outcomes it is most effective.”

Fernholz, L. D. (2014). Theory into practice: Preparing pre-service teachers for effective literacy instruction using new literacies and technologies. (Doctoral Dissertation).  Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (UMI No. 3642749)

Abstract: “Teacher preparation programs have an obligation to facilitate authentic learning opportunities for increasing pre-service teachers' TPACK understandings during their methods courses. Additionally, these courses must be supported by curriculum goals and not simply for technical integration or as instructional add-on (Harris & Hofer, 2009; Hutchison et al., 2012).

Therefore, this study examined how pre-service teachers integrated the iPad and iPad "apps" to support the emergence of new literacies and technologies during the implementation of a one-to-one iPad tablet project within the context of a pre-service teacher literacy preparation course practicum. Research questions used to guide this study included: (1) to what extent did pre-service teachers themselves become familiar with and knowledgeable about how to best exploit the affordances unique to the iPad and the iPad Apps, (2) how did pre-service teachers use their understanding of new literacies to build on these affordances and, (3) how did pre-service teachers incorporate (or not incorporate) a critical literacy perspective when planning their literacy activities?

In an effort to advance literacy research and practices that encompass new literacies and technologies for teacher preparation programs, a Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2007; Mishra & Koehler, 2006) was used as a lens through which to observe the development of TPACK in these ten pre-service teachers. Participant surveys, pre and post interviews, collected assignments and researcher observations were analyzed using TPACK tools (Harris, Grandgenett & Hofer 2012). The data were analyzed to examine the participants' beliefs about the affordances of the iPad and iPad "apps" for literacy lessons designed for authentic tutoring sessions. The results indicate that participants' TPACK understandings improved as their confidence to incorporate the device into literacy lessons increased. Collected data supported the notion that pre-service teacherTPACK development is closely related to a shift in identity from learners of literacy to teachers of literacy. Good teaching using technology required that the pre-service teachers understood the interrelationships among content, pedagogy, and technology.”

Lee, K.S., Smith, S., Bos, B. (2014). Pre-service teachers' technological pedagogical knowledge: A continuum of views on effective technology integration. International Journal of E-Learning and Distance Education, 29(2). Retrieved from

Abstract: "This article reports a heuristic case study that explored how components of Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) manifested in the artifacts of post-Baccalaureate pre-service teachers. Self-reported perceptions of their technology integration competencies were high. End-of-semester presentations reflected three distinct views of technology integration: trendy, pragmatic, and pedagogical. The quality of TPK connections in lesson plans was mixed. Higher TPK scores were apparent in lesson plans associated with models of teaching with which they had the most familiarity as learners themselves. The appropriateness of their choice of technology to enhance student learning was related to the depth of their conceptual understanding of the pedagogy. This article concludes by echoing Shulman’s (1987) advice that teacher education courses and programs need to be structured in a way that explicitly address pedagogical reasoning."

Kopcha, T., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A., Jung, J., & Baser, D. (2014). Examining the TPACK framework through the convergent and discriminant validity of two measures. Computers & Education, 78, 87-96.  doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.05.003

Abstract: "The purpose of this multiple case study was to critically evaluate the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework by examining the convergent and discriminant validity associated with two popular TPACK measures. Twenty-seven preservice teachers completed the Schmidt et al. (2009) survey and their planning documents were analyzed using the Harris et al. (2010) rubric. A Spearman rank order correlation on the two measures revealed low levels of convergence within similar constructs and a lack of discrimination between dissimilar constructs. Holistic narrative analysis of end-of-course portfolios supported the rubric scores overall. Recommendations for re-examining the measures and the TPACK framework itself are discussed.”

Bachy, S. (2014). TPDK, a new definition of the TPACK model for a university setting. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 17(2), 15-39. Abstract retrieved from

Abstract: "In this paper we propose a new Technopedagogical Disciplinary Knowledge model. This model integrates four separate dimensions, which we use to measure a teacher’s effectiveness. These are the individual teacher’s discipline (D), personal epistemology (E), pedagogical knowledge (P), and knowledge of technology (T). We also acknowledge the existence of relationships between these components. These can be more or less correlated depending on the teacher’s individual profile. They are always present, but they do not necessarily have the same weighting. In order to test the potential differences between teachers’ profiles, we designed a questionnaire, which tested our model’s components, and the relationships between them. This questionnaire was initially submitted to a group of teachers with whom we were familiar, to ensure the questions were understandable and that, based on what we already knew of the teachers’ characteristics, the profiles that emerged were reliable. A second test was then carried out, which we used to compare the answers of university and non-university level teachers, based in the two institutions in which we work. This second questionnaire was used to test the consistency of responses, and the correlations between the model’s different dimensions. Having analysed the outcome of these questionnaires, it appears that “pedagogical knowledge” is significantly correlated with the other three dimensions. This consolidated framework has helped us to build a system of education development coaching for teaching practices that use technology widely."

Agyei, D. D., & Keengwe, J. (2014). Using technology pedagogical content knowledge development to enhance learning outcomes. Education and Information Technologies, 19(1), 155-171. doi:10.1007/s10639-012-9204-1

Abstract:  “This paper describes an intervention in which pre-service teachers developed their TPACK through multiple data sources. Teachers’ self-reports of their TPACK knowledge were triangulated with performance-based assessment of their instructional practices and artifacts to give a better understanding and nature of pre-service teachers’ TPACK development. Although self reported measures did not correlate with pre-service teachers’ actual increased knowledge of technology integration, this study enhances better understanding of the pre-service teachers’ TPACK development through the multiple assessment measures. The learning outcome measures provide specific information and concrete representation of what pre-service teachers can actually do with technology in their TPACK development. The findings suggested multiple concerns about self-reported measures that are discussed in the framework of the TPACK instrument.”

Hutchison, A., & Woodward, L. (2014). A planning cycle for integrating digital technology into literacy instruction. The Reading Teacher, 67(6), 455–464. doi:10.1002/trtr.1225

Abstract: “With the adoption of the Common Core State Standards by most states, the use of digital tools in literacy and language arts instruction has become of critical importance to educators. These changes produce a need for a better understanding of how literacy and language arts teachers can successfully integrate digital tools into their instruction and the types of knowledge they employ as they do so. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present the Technology Integration Planning Cycle for Literacy and Language Arts to support teachers with integrating digital technology into literacy instruction. This instructional planning cycle identifies seven critical elements that influence literacy teachers' instructional planning involving digital technology and the success or failure of the resulting classroom instruction. A classroom example is provided to illustrate the instructional planning process.”

Brantley-Dias, L., & Ertmer, P.A. (2013).  Goldilocks and TPACK:  Is the construct “just right?”  Journal of Research on Technology in Education (International Society for Technology in Education), 46(2), 103-128. 

Abstract:  “In the education community, the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework has become a popular construct for examining the types of teacher knowledge needed to achieve technology integration. In accordance with Katz and Raths's "Goldilocks Principle" (cited in Kagan, 1990), TPACK, with its seven knowledge domains, may be too large (vague or ambiguous) of a construct to enable reasonable application. In this article, we provide a critical review of the TPACK construct and address the development, verification, usefulness, application, and appropriateness of TPACK as a way to explain the teacher cognition needed for effective technology integration. We make suggestions for returning to a simpler conceptualization to refocus our efforts on what teachers need to achieve meaningful technology--enabled learning.”

Cavanagh, R.F., & Koehler, M.J. (2013).  A turn toward specifying validity criteria in the measurement of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK).  Journal of Research on Technology in Education (International Society for Technology in Education), 46(2), 129-148.

Abstract: “The impetus for this paper stems from a concern about directions and progress in the measurement of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework for effective technology integration. In this paper, we develop the rationale for using a seven-criterion lens, based upon contemporary validity theory, for critiquing empirical investigations and measurements using the TPACK framework. This proposed seven-criterion lens may help researchers map out measurement principles and techniques that ensure reliable and valid measurement in TPACK research. Our critique of existing TPACK research using these criteria as a frame suggests several areas of theorizing and practice that are likely impeding the press for measurement. First are contradictions and confusion about the epistemology of TPACK. Second is the lack of clarity about the purpose of TPACK measurement. Third is the choice and use of measurement models and techniques. This article illustrates these limitations with examples from current TPACK and measurement-based research and discusses directions and guidelines for further research.”

Murphy, K. (2013). Technology techniques: Using them the right way. Science Scope, 36(5), 6-7.

Excerpt:  “Last semester I learned about something called Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, or TPACK (Harris and Hofer 2009), an education framework that recognizes how technology can be integrated into the complex components of teacher knowledge ( While I already had a good understanding of each of the parts of TPACK individually, I learned how interconnected each part is (or should be) when one creates effective instruction. The best lessons are those that use technology to further content knowledge while effectively managing the classroom.”

Shinas, V., Yilmaz-Ozden, S., Mouza, C., Karchmer-Klein, R., & Glutting, J.J. (2013).  Examining domain of technological pedagogical content knowledge using factor analysis.  Journal of Research on Technology in Education (International Society for Technology in Education), 45(4), 339-360.

Abstract:  “This study examined the construct validity of the Survey of Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Teaching and Technology through an exploratory factor analysis using responses from 365 preservice teachers enrolled in an educational technology course in the United States. The participants were completing methods courses and field experience concurrent to the educational technology course, allowing them to contextualize the content they learned during the semester. The survey, grounded in the framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), is designed to measure seven domains associated with technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge. Although the influence of the TPACK framework on teacher education programs continues to grow, research indicates the need for clearer distinctions between the domains. Results from this study revealed that participants did not always make conceptual distinctions between the TPACK domains. Specifically, factors were congruent across only technological knowledge (TK) and content knowledge (CK) and not congruent across pedagogical knowledge (PK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), technological content knowledge (TCK), and TPACK. Additionally, PK and PCK loaded together, indicating the participants did not distinguish PK from PCK. Overall, this study confirms the need to provide more clarity about the TPACK framework and to revisit survey instruments built directly around the framework.”

Young, J.R., Young, J.L., & Hamilton, C. (2013).  The use of confidence intervals as a meta-analytic lens to summarize the effects of teacher education technology courses on preservice teacher TPACK.  Journal of Research on Technology in Education (International Society for Technology in Education), 46(2), 149-172. 

Abstract:  “The validity and reliability of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework to measure the extent to which teachers can teach with technology, hinges on the ability to aggregate results across empirical studies. We synthesized mean difference effect sizes resulting from university classroom studies, which used a survey of preservice teacher knowledge of teaching with technology (TKTT) using confidence intervals (CIs).We then characterized the mean effect sizes for the influence of classroom instruction on preservice teacher TPACK by graphing CIs across studies from 2009 until 2011. The results present approximations of TPACK population parameters as well as implications for researchers and teacher educators.”

Zelkowski, J., Gleason. J., Cox, D.C., & Bismarck, S. (2013).  Developing and validating a reliable TPACK instrument for secondary mathematics preservice teachers.  Journal of Research on Technology in Education (International Society for Technology in Education), 46(2), 173-206.

Abstract: “Within the realm of teaching middle and high school mathematics, the ability to teach mathematics effectively using various forms of technology is now more important than ever, as expressed by the recent development of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice. his article presents the development process and the results from 15 institutions and more than 300 surveys completed by secondary mathematics preservice teachers. The results suggest that technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge; technology knowledge; content knowledge; and pedagogical knowledge constructs are valid and reliable, whereas pedagogical content knowledge, technological content knowledge, and technological pedagogical knowledge domains remain difficult for preservice teachers to separate and self-report.”

Graham, C. R., Borup, J., & Smith, N. B. (2012). Using TPACK as a framework to understand teacher candidates’ technology integration decisions. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(6), 530–546. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00472.x

Abstract:  “This research uses the technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) framework as a lens for understanding howteacher candidates make decisions about the use of information and communication technology in their teaching. Pre- and post-treatment assessments required elementary teacher candidates at Brigham Young University to articulate how and why they would integrate technology in three content teaching design tasks. Researchers identified themes from student rationales that mapped to the TPACK constructs. Rationales simultaneously supported subcategories of knowledge that could be helpful to other researchers trying to understand and measure TPACK. The research showed significant student growth in the use of rationales grounded in content-specific knowledge and general pedagogical knowledge, while rationales related to general technological knowledge remained constant.”

Hutchison, A., Beschorner, B., & Schmidt-Crawford, D. (2012).  Exploring the use of the iPad for literacy learning.  Reading Teacher, 66(1), 15-23.  doi: 10.1002/trtr.01090

Abstract: “The goal of this investigation was to explore how a fourth grade teacher could integrate iPads into her literacy instruction to simultaneously teach print-based and digital literacy goals. The teacher used iPads for a three-week period during her literacy instruction and selected apps that provided unique approaches to helping the students meet their literacy learning goals. An explanation of how to develop lessons that meaningfully integrate iPads is presented, as well as lessons learned from the project. Considerations for integrating tablets, such as the iPad, into literacy instruction are provided. Because iPads and similar tablets are relatively unexplored as tools for literacy learning, this work may provide a foundation for teachers and leaders making decisions about whether mobile devices such as these can be useful in literacy classrooms.” 

Juniu, S. (2011). Pedagogical uses of technology in physical education: Choose your technology to aid your teaching, rather than designing your lesson to fit the available technology. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(9), 41.

Abstract: “The primary goals of the program are to (1) provide preservice teachers with an opportunity to experience problem-based learning that requires the training in and application of several digital instructional tools, including data collection devices and multimedia applications; (2) engage preservice teachers in authentic discussion about the pedagogical uses of digital tools; and (3) explore new instructional models that provide technical and instructional support throughout the process of integrating curriculum and technology. Since knowledge is an essential element in making proper decisions regarding the implementation of new technologies in education, teacher preparation programs should focus on the development of preservice teachers' knowledge of the subject matter in conjunction with how best to structure and support their teaching and learning activities with technology.”

Soong, A.S.K., & Tan, S.C. (2010, December).  Integrating technology into lesson using a TPACK-based design guide.  Paper presented at the 2010 Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) Conference, Sydney, Australia.  Abstract retrieved from

Abstract: “The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework, first discovered by Mishra and Koehler in 2006, has gained much interest among teacher educators as it recognises that pedagogical uses of technology are greatly influenced by the content domains in which they are situated in. Recent studies on the TPACK framework have been focused mainly on analysing the TPACK constructs and measuring as well as assessing TPACK of teachers. However, how TPACK can be utilized by teachers to guide them to integrate technology into their teaching has yet been well developed. This paper describes a proposed TPACK-based design guide for teachers to use when they consider integrating technology into their lessons. A case vignette that further articulates the design guide is included.”

Thompson, A. D., & Schmidt, D. (2010). Editor’s Remarks. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 26(4), 125. doi:10.1080/10402454.2010.10784644

Excerpt:  “When we asked Judi Harris, a professor at the College of William and Mary, to comment on this second-generation TPACK work, she responded, ‘TPACK’s diffusion among researchers, educators, and developers continues to be just about as viral as a theoretical construct can be.  Now in its fifth year of international dissemination, we’re seeing much more attention on multiple ways to help new and experienced teachers develop their TPACK.”

Devaney, L. (2009). "TPACK explores effective ed tech integration: New teacher education concept focused on the intersection of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge." eSchoolNews & eCampusNews. Retrieved from

Summary: Interview-based "top story" about TPACK and helping teachers to develop TPACK using learning activity types. Koehler, Mishra, Harris, Hofer, and Richardson were interviewed.

McAnear, A., (2009).  Effective technology integration.  Learning & Leading with Technology, 36(7), 5.

Excerpt: “Mishra and Koehler have inspired others to pursue effective technology integration. Judi Harris, Mark Hofer, and their colleagues at the College of William and Mary are looking at each content area to determine the best activities to teach it. Then they look for technologies that
support the activity type. It is very interesting to see the activity types for the various curricular
areas and how they are organized.”

Richardson, K. W. (2009).  Looking at/looking through: Teachers planning for curriculum -based learning with technology.  (Doctoral Dissertation).  Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (No. 3371354).

Abstract: “This interpretivist study drew upon the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006; Thompson & Mishra, 2007-2008; Koehler & Mishra, 2009) to study teachers' lesson planning processes. It focused upon 12 fifth, sixth and seventh grade content area teachers from three southeastern U.S. school districts as they planned for and used digital technologies during lessons in their classrooms. Participating teachers were interviewed about the processes they used to plan instruction, focusing upon how they determined which technologies might be used. In addition, sample technology-infused lessons were observed to see how the plans were put into action. Each of the different types of knowledge represented in the TPACK framework was evidenced in the teachers' planning. Though pedagogical (P), content (C), technological (T) knowledge, and PC, TP, TC, and TPACK were represented, interactions between technology and pedagogy (TP) took precedence. As the teachers planned and implemented lessons, they followed Shulman's (1987a) Model of Pedagogical Reasoning and Action, loosely applied. They incorporated technology use into existing practices and routines, and all of those uses can be classified according to Harris and Hofer's (2009a) learning activity types. At the time that the study was conducted, participating teachers were beginning to develop specific instructional routines related to the use of digital technologies in instruction. These routines were related to learning activity types. The study's results can assist those who work with teachers and technology, since they reveal teachers' thinking and decision-making during instructional planning that incorporates educational uses of technology.”

Social Studies Learning Activity Types
Library of Congress, Teaching with Primary Sources Newsletter

Research and Current Thinking. Retrieved from

"This resource presents three sets of activity types (knowledge building, convergent knowledge expression, and divergent knowledge expression) and provides suggestions for compatible technologies that may be used to support each type of learning activity."